A reader who asked for anonymity wrote in:
I’m visiting a lawyer next week to get started on filing for bankruptcy. I have no way to pay my debts or even make the minimum payments each month. My problem is that I simply can’t find a place online that actually explains what the different kinds of bankruptcy are and how they work in any terms I can understand. What’s Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 and Chapter 13?
I’ll attempt to explain these concepts in the clearest terms I can. Of course, when you do that, you tend to lose some details in the process, so if you want to know more about your specific situation, I suggest contacting a lawyer.
What Is Bankruptcy?
Bankruptcy simply means that you can’t pay off your debts and you’re asking the legal system for help. This event appears on your credit report and can have a negative impact on your credit score for seven years, though being diligent about following through with the plan developed in bankruptcy court means you can minimize that impact. It also means that the court system will come up with some sort of plan that works for both you and your creditors for you to pay back some portion of your debts. The exact way you do that differs depending on the type of bankruptcy.
Typically, bankruptcy is an option of last resort. It has legal costs which can add up to the thousands and a very negative long-term impact on your credit. You should only turn to this if you cannot come up with a successful debt repayment plan on your own. I suggest creating your own debt repayment plan and making a serious effort to execute it on your own before considering bankruptcy. Credit counseling can also help; in fact, it is legally mandated before you file for bankruptcy.
Chapter 11 Bankruptcy
Chapter 11 bankruptcy is usually the best option if you own a business. This form of bankruptcy typically allows a business owner to remain in control of their business while going through bankruptcy proceedings. This typically occurs if you own a business that isn’t able to pay its bills at the moment. If you do not own a business, Chapter 11 is not right for you.
Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
Chapter 7 bankruptcy is a “liquidation” bankruptcy. You can typically only use this type of bankruptcy if you have sufficient income – usually more than the median income in your state. If you qualify, what happens is that some portion of your possessions are sold and the money from selling those possessions are used to pay off your creditors.
You’re allowed to keep some of your possessions during this process depending on the specifics in your state. This usually includes your home, your clothing, minimal transportation, a few hundred dollars’ worth of personal possessions, your pensions, and a few other odds and ends. The rest of your assets are liquidated and used to pay off the creditors. At the end of this process, your creditors go away, but your credit report has a big black mark on it and you’ve lost many of your assets.
If you hear stories of people repeatedly filing for bankruptcy, that usually means they’ve adopted some form of lifestyle where they repeatedly file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. They usually don’t accumulate assets and spend the debt money they accumulate on experiences. Then, when they file for Chapter 7, there aren’t many assets for the creditors to take.
Chapter 13 Bankruptcy
Chapter 13 bankruptcy is the most common type of bankruptcy. In this form of bankruptcy, you and your legal counsel come up with a debt repayment plan. During the process, the plan is usually adjusted a bit to match the creditor’s demands and your own ability to repay such debts. Often, these plans lower your monthly payments to the point that you can actually handle them within your income. Often, that also means that your total debt amount is lowered.
What’s the drawback? For starters, the cost usually is in the thousands – this is tacked onto the court-ordered debt repayment plan. The plan itself usually ties up almost all of your spending money for a few years as you’re paying off debts. It also damages your credit severely, as does any bankruptcy, but your successful repayments will help mitigate that damage.
Which Is Right for Me?
For most people, Chapter 13 is the best route. Chapter 7 is better if you’re a high wage earner with few assets. Chapter 11 is the one to consider if there’s a business involved.
Of course, the specifics of bankruptcy vary somewhat from state to state. If you’re considering any of these avenues, contact legal representation before you move forward and make sure you understand the specifics in your state.
Your best choice, of course, is to avoid being in a situation where you’re concerned about this in the first place. Hopefully, this advice helps those who need it – and encourages people heading in that direction to reconsider their path.